In the early morning hours of August 31, the final American troopers lifted off from Kabul airport, formally ending the 20-year struggle in Afghanistan, the longest in US historical past.
At its peak in 2011, the US had roughly 100,000 troops throughout at the very least 10 military bases from Bagram to Kandahar. In complete, greater than 800,000 US troopers served in the struggle in line with the Pentagon.
While no US troops stay on the floor at this time, US President Joe Biden stated that his military will proceed to conduct air raids in opposition to enemy targets from “over-the-horizon” – air missions from an enormous community of US bases around the area.
Upwards of 750 US bases around the world
According to David Vine, professor of political anthropology at the American University in Washington, DC, the US had around 750 bases in at the very least 80 international locations as of July 2021.
The precise quantity could also be even increased as not all knowledge is revealed by the Pentagon.
With 120 lively bases, Japan has the highest variety of US bases in the world adopted by Germany with 119 and South Korea with 73.
US military base websites fall beneath two principal classes:
Large bases or “Bases”: Defined as military installations bigger than 4 hectares (10 acres) or price greater than $10 million. These bases usually have in extra of 200 US military personnel. 439 or 60 p.c of the US’s international bases fall beneath this class.
Small bases or “Lily Pads”: These bases are smaller than 4 hectares(10 acres) or have a price of lower than $10 million. These embrace cooperative safety places and ahead working websites. The remaining 40 p.c of US international bases fall beneath this class.
According to world US military deployment data revealed in the Conflict Management and Peace Science Journal, the US had around 173,000 troops deployed in 159 international locations as of 2020.
Like the US bases, the international locations with the most variety of US troops embrace Japan with 53,700, Germany with 33,900 and South Korea with 26,400.
US military presence in the Middle East
According to the Watson Institute at Brown University, between 1.9 and three million US service members have served in Afghanistan and Iraq since 2001, with over half of them deployed greater than as soon as.
The largest US military set up in the Middle East is the Al Udeid Air Base, positioned west of Doha, Qatar. Established in 1996, it hosts around 11,000 American and coalition service members. Covering an space of 24 hectares (60 acres), the base accommodates nearly 100 plane in addition to drones.
On October 7, 2001, the US beneath President George W Bush invaded Afghanistan following the 9/11 assaults. The coalition he led accused the ruling Taliban regime of harbouring Osama bin Laden, the al-Qaeda chief who claimed accountability for the assaults.
An estimated 241,000 folks have died as a direct results of the struggle since 2001, in line with the Costs of War undertaking at Brown University. In addition, lots of of 1000’s extra, largely civilians, have died on account of starvation, illness and harm brought on by the devastating struggle.
In 2003, the US invaded Iraq after it accused long-time Iraqi chief Saddam Hussein of getting weapons of mass destruction – none was discovered. At its peak in 2007, the US had an estimated 170,000 troops in the nation. Today, there are around 2,500 US troops in the nation as a part of a safety settlement with the Iraqi authorities.
US military presence in Japan and South Korea
The US has been in Japan since the finish of World War II (1939-1945) and in South Korea since the Korean War (1950-1953).
Nearly half of all US military deployed overseas, some 80,100 American personnel, are stationed in Japan with 53,700 and South Korea with 26,400.
South Korea hosts Camp Humphreys, the largest abroad US military base, positioned roughly 65km (40 miles) south of the capital Seoul.
The 1,398 hectares (3,454 acres) base is one in every of 80 bases in the nation and is lower than 100km (60 miles) from the closely fortified demilitarized zone that demarcates North Korea from South Korea.
US military presence in Europe
Europe is house to at the very least 60,000 US troops. At 33,900, Germany has the highest variety of US troops in Europe – and the second highest in the world – adopted by Italy at 12,300 and the UK at 9,300. However, the variety of US troops stationed in Germany has greater than halved between 2006 and 2020, dropping from 72,400 to 33,900.
The Ramstein Air Base in Germany is the largest hub for US troops and military provides in Europe. Just outdoors the 1,200 hectares (3,000 acres) base is the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, the largest US military hospital outdoors the US. The facility was used extensively throughout the Afghanistan and Iraq wars and handled 1000’s of wounded troopers.
Like practically all US bases, Ramstein is provided with hospitals, colleges, energy stations, condo complexes and a bunch of facilities also known as “Burger Kings and bowling alleys”.
US military presence in Latin America
Located on the japanese tip of Cuba, the Guantanamo Bay naval base is the US’s oldest abroad military base. The 116sq km (45 sq miles) facility has been beneath American management since the finish of the nineteenth century.
The base is a hotly debated concern between the US and Cuba. For a long time, Cuba has insisted that the US hand again the territory it took by pressure in 1898 and subsequently leased completely in 1903.
US troop deployment since 1950
Over the previous 70 years, the US military has been deployed to greater than 200 international locations and territories.
The infographic beneath exhibits a short historical past of the place the US has deployed its troops since the finish of World War II, together with the wars it has fought in.
Following the give up of the Japanese to the Allies that ended World War II, the US and the Soviet Union divided Korea, which had been beneath Japanese rule, alongside the thirty eighth parallel, roughly bisecting the Korean peninsula.
On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces, backed by China and the Soviet Union, invaded the South triggering the begin of the Korean War. Allied with the South, the US deployed some 1.78 million troops over the three-year-long struggle.
It is estimated that between 2 to three million civilians died throughout the struggle. According to the US Department of Defense, the US suffered 33,739 deaths in battle. No formal peace treaty was ever signed.
Tensions between the US and the Soviet Union continued to brew in Southeast Asia in the Nineteen Fifties and Sixties. The principal battle pitted the communist authorities of North Vietnam in opposition to South Vietnam and its ally, the US.
Over 3.4 million US troops had been deployed to Southeast Asia; in extra of three million folks, together with over 58,000 Americans, had been killed in the struggle.
On March 29, 1973, the final US fight troops left Vietnam. Two years afterward April 30, 1975, communist forces seized management of South Vietnam and ended the struggle.
On August 2, 1990, the Iraqi military invaded Kuwait, a small oil-rich nation to the nation’s south. One week later, on August 9, the US started Operation Desert Shield, and deployed 1000’s of troops to Saudi Arabia.
During the temporary struggle, around 694,550 American troops had been deployed to the area. On February 28, 1991, US President George HW Bush declared a ceasefire, and on April 3 of that very same 12 months, the UN handed a decision formally ending the battle.
The interval following the 9/11 assaults, and the declaration of struggle on each Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003, noticed a big spike in troops overseas. At least 800,000 Americans served in Afghanistan and greater than 1.5 million in Iraq over the previous 20 years.
The human price of the wars is estimated to have killed greater than 900,000 people – largely civilians.
US military spending since 1950
In 2020, the US spent $778bn on its military – the largest military spender in the world and greater than the subsequent 10 international locations mixed – in line with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
China ranked second at $252bn, adopted by India at $73bn, Russia at $62bn and the UK at $59bn.
Over the previous 20 years alone, the US has spent $8 trillion on its so-called “global war on terror” in line with the Costs of War undertaking at Brown University. The struggle in Afghanistan accounts for $2.3 trillion which, in line with Brown University researchers, equals greater than $300 million a day for 20 years.
$2.1 trillion was spent on the wars in Iraq and Syria, and $355bn was attributed to different wars. The remainder of the cash consists of in extra of $1bn in curiosity funds for the big quantities of cash borrowed to fund the wars in addition to greater than $2.2bn in obligations for veterans’ care over the subsequent 30 years. This implies that, even after the US has left Afghanistan, it is going to proceed to pay for the wars for years to come back.