Over the previous twenty years, the disaster in China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has drastically worsened. This has a lot to do with the most important growth after 2001 of repressive measures directed at suppressing dissent amongst Uighurs, dressed within the rhetoric of anti-terrorism.
Following the 9/11 assaults, the United States launched the worldwide “war on terror”, which supported efforts in different nations to dismantle terror organisations. It is following these occasions that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) outlined Uighur resistance as a part of the worldwide “terrorism” emergency and never as a neighborhood problem of “separatism” because it used to previously.
This definition was immediately validated by the US authorities when it categorised the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM), an obscure armed group working in Afghanistan, as a “terrorist organisation” and imprisoned Uighurs within the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. Thus America’s “war on terror” helped China launch an enormous crackdown on the Uighur inhabitants, which has gone so far as the imprisonment of 1 million ethnic Uighurs in a “massive internment camp that is shrouded in secrecy”, in response to the United Nations.
For centuries, Uighurs have been dwelling within the area alternately generally known as Altishahr, East Turkestan, or Xinjiang. In 1759, they got here beneath the rule of the Qing Empire, which referred to as their homeland the “New Territory” (Xinjiang). Despite a number of rebellions within the early twentieth century, the province remained a part of China and, in 1955, it was granted autonomy by CCP chief Mao Zedong.
In the next a long time, financial and materials funding within the area raised the usual of dwelling and offered some benefits for its non-Han inhabitants, however these providers got here at a price. Increasing Han migration displaced Uyghurs from their indigenous lands and began inflicting tensions.
It is these altering social dynamics that set the scene for unrest in Xinjiang, not a non secular drive to wage “jihad” as has been claimed. Thus, within the late twentieth century, ethnic tensions within the province have been rooted in Uighur considerations over self-governance, cultural preservation, instructional alternatives, or labour and well being points.
The disparities between Han immigrants and Indigenous folks performed a big function in fuelling separatist sentiments and actions within the area. Uighurs had professional considerations about their sovereignty and freedoms however had little energy to enact change. Often native demonstrations in opposition to authorities insurance policies have been suppressed, with state violence intensifying after the occasions at Tiananmen Square in 1989.
Throughout the Nineteen Nineties each native and transnational actions calling for Uighur independence have been established, most notably the East Turkestan Information Center and the World Uyghur Youth Congress.
By the late-Nineteen Nineties, a collection of bombings in public transportation and at a police station within the Xinjiang capital Ürümqi and have been attributed to “East Turkestan separatists”. In 1997, the CCP launched the “Strike Hard” marketing campaign to fight separatism. It gave safety businesses the inexperienced gentle to enact huge arrests and swift executions of suspected separatists.
Uighur activists argued that the federal government was utilizing accusations of separatism to suppress any type of Uighur dissent and criticism of state insurance policies. Some even claimed that violent incidents have been falsely attributed to Uighur separatists in an effort to justify ramping up repressive measures.
The 9/11 assaults gave this anti-separatism marketing campaign a complete new route. In their aftermath, US President George W Bush warned world leaders that they’d to select: be with America or on the facet of the terrorists. China made its alternative clear: It voted in favour of UN Security Council resolutions urging worldwide motion in opposition to terrorism and expressed its dedication to the “war on terror”.
The US reciprocated this signal of cooperation by figuring out the little-known ETIM as a worldwide terrorist organisation and including it to the US Terrorism Exclusion List in the summertime of 2002. The UN adopted swimsuit on the one-year anniversary of 9/11.
The foundation for the designation was flimsy at greatest. Beijing accused ETIM of violent terrorism inflicting quite a few deaths within the Nineteen Nineties however there was little proof to help these claims. US intelligence maintained they gathered related details about the group’s alleged terrorist exercise throughout interrogations of twenty-two Uighurs at Guantanamo Bay, who have been detained in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Their testimonies revealed that in 2002, ETIM was a small group of fighters primarily based in Afghanistan with no actual ties to international “jihadist” networks that posed no severe terror risk.
This didn’t matter, nevertheless. With official worldwide help of “war on terror” proponents, the authorized and political equipment had already been set in movement to border and justify the CCP’s crackdown on any Uighur dissent as an anti-terrorism effort. The ETIM’s designation as a terrorist organisation thus grew to become the linchpin of US complicity within the CCP’s oppression of Uighurs.
The frequency of Uighur protests inside Xinjiang decreased all through the 2000s, partly as a result of more and more repressive measures enacted after 9/11. However, in July 2009, the social tensions between Han and Uighur residents of Ürümqi boiled over. A fancy set of labour points, public hearsay, racial biases, and communal frustration resulted in inter-ethnic violence that killed nearly 200 folks and injured greater than 1,000, in response to the Chinese authorities.
CCP officers and Chinese state media claimed the unrest was catalyzed by Rebiya Kadeer, president of the World Uyghur Congress, which in addition they asserted was a “terrorist” group working with ETIM.
The Uighur terrorism narrative has additionally justified harsher practices of social management in Xinjiang. Securitisation efforts drastically intensified with the promotion of Chen Quanguo to the CCP Committee Secretary of Xinjiang in 2016. After years of growing surveillance methods, grid administration policing, and re-education programmes in Tibet, Chen introduced his blueprint to Xinjiang.
Uighurs have confronted excessive counterterrorism measures, together with eye scans, unrestricted searches of smartphones, blocking of exterior media sources, and mass internment in detention centres.
Social, cultural and spiritual norms deemed incompatible with Han majority life have been criminalised, together with girls carrying face veils and males having lengthy beards. Any show of religiosity amongst Uighurs has been thought-about suspicious and an indication of potential “terrorist” intent.
The CCP’s conflation of Uighur dissent and calls for for rights and freedoms with “Islamic fundamentalism” and “terrorism” displays the logic of the US “war on terror”, which mechanically equates Muslim political exercise with terrorism.
In the previous few years, the plight of the Uighurs lastly attracted worldwide sympathy, particularly after revelations concerning the abhorrent circumstances Uighur detainees face in internment camps. In 2020, the US lastly eliminated the ETIM’s designation as a “terrorist organisation” and went so far as declaring suppression of Uighurs a genocide.
This, nevertheless, can not erase the important thing function the US authorities performed in main worldwide acceptance of Beijing’s repressive measures in opposition to the neighborhood. The US “war on terror” has been actually devastating for tens of millions of Muslims, who’ve had nothing to do with the 9/11 assaults, together with Uighurs.
The views expressed on this article are the writer’s own and don’t essentially replicate Al Jazeera’s editorial stance.