Kozhikode, India – On August 26, 1921, Vadakkeveetil Mammadu led a warfare towards the British colonial forces in Pookkottur, a village in Malappuram district in the southern state of Kerala.
Mammadu was the secretary of the native Khilafat Committee, a motion led by the then South Asian Muslims to restore the Ottoman caliphate eliminated by the imperial British.
The British troops had to retreat, however after killing a whole lot of natives together with Mammadu, who “walked towards the soldiers” and took a bullet.
In a controversial resolution precisely a century later, the Indian Council for Historical Research (ICHR) has really helpful deleting the names of Mammadu and 386 others from a Dictionary of the Martyrs of India’s Freedom Struggle (PDF) the government-controlled physique publishes.
“It’s treason,” Ibrahim Vadakkanveetil, Mammadu’s grandson, instructed Al Jazeera. “Our grandfather gave his life for the freedom of this country. History can’t be changed.”
Ibrahim’s father Kunjimu was given the state advantages accorded to Indian freedom fighters, following recognition from the Kerala authorities in 1971.
The 1921 Malabar insurrection
Mappila, anglicised as Moplah, is an ethnic Muslim neighborhood in northern Kerala.
As the Khilafat Movement gained momentum throughout the subcontinent, Mappilas in Malappuram defied British rule in 1921 and established an unbiased state, referred to as “Malayala Rajyam” or Malayalam Kingdom, beneath the rule of Variamkunnath Kunhammad Haji.
The new ruler declared Malabar an unbiased state with its separate passport, foreign money and system of taxation.
During his transient rule, Haji attacked colonial police stations, executed landlords who supported the British empire and distributed land to poor farmers.
To crush the insurrection, the British administration despatched senior police officer Richard Howard Hitchcock, who led raids in the realm’s villages to discover and kill the rebels.
A particular paramilitary unit was fashioned to suppress the insurrection, forcing the Mappila males to flee to the hills, forsaking ladies who, in accordance to historians, confronted the brutalities of the colonial forces.
The British documented the Mappila rebellion as “riots”, vilifying the neighborhood as “fanatics” that “attacked Hindus” and “forced them to convert to Islam”.
Haji himself wrote a rebuttal to the British allegations in a letter to The Hindu newspaper in October 1921.
“It appears that the report that Hindus are forcibly converted [by my men] is entirely untrue,” he wrote.
In January 1922, utilizing the pretext of signing a treaty, the British arrested Haji and executed him. The non secular chief of the insurrection, Ali Muslyar, additionally suffered the identical destiny.
On November 10, 1921, greater than 100 prisoners of the insurrection have been stuffed into an unventilated railway wagon. At least 64 of them have been discovered lifeless when the prepare reached Tirur, a coastal city in Malappuram.
Official information say 2,337 rebels have been killed in the suppression of the revolt, however some historians argue the actual casualties are above 10,000.
Prisoners have been deported to jails throughout India, together with in the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, the place many died.
It is their names which were marked by the ICHR to be deleted from the dictionary of the martyrs of the liberty wrestle.
Last month, Ram Madhav, a politician from India’s governing Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) who discovered his moorings in the far-right Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), stated the Mappila insurrection was “one of the first manifestations of the Talibani mindset in India”.
Madhav made the assertion whereas he was inaugurating the “Mappila Riots Martyrs Remembrance Year”, a marketing campaign launched by right-wing Hindu teams in Kerala.
Since being fashioned right into a state in 1956, Kerala has oscillated between Marxist and Congress governments, with out ever giving the BJP a foothold in the state with 27 % Muslim inhabitants.
V Muraleedharan, India’s junior overseas minister, stated the supporters of the Malabar insurrection “brought disrepute to the nation by glorifying an Islamic state inside India”.
“The rioters have never fought for the country’s independence,” he stated.
After Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s BJP got here to energy on a Hindu nationalist agenda in 2014, the ICHR has been accused of making an attempt to revise and “saffronise” its syncretic historical past.
Critics accuse the physique of “bending” to the pressures of Hindu nationalist teams.
“The ICHR’s move to take out the names of the Malabar rebellion martyrs is threatening and reprehensible,” ET Mohammed Basheer, parliamentarian from Malappuram and veteran chief of the Indian Union Muslim League, instructed Al Jazeera.
“The RSS imposed their interpretations as India’s history,” Professor Gopinath Ravindran, vice-chancellor of Kerala’s Kannur University, instructed Al Jazeera.
“The ICHR is painting Muslims in history as communal since [Narendra] Modi took an oath to office.”
In 2015, Ravindran stop the ICHR after the BJP – which got here to energy the yr earlier than – appointed dozens of individuals affiliated with the RSS who, he says, “had nothing to do with history”.
‘Saffronisation’ of India’s historical past
Among the members appointed by the BJP to the ICHR is Professor CI Issac, one of many three panellists who really helpful deleting the names of the Mappila rebels from the dictionary.
Issac says the 1921 revolt was a “jihad against Hindu population”.
“There were forced conversions, executions, torture and operation of a Sharia court. In order to restore law and order, the then governmental authorities using their civil forces suppressed the agitation,” Issac instructed Al Jazeera.
Issac can also be the vp of Bharatiya Vichara Kendra, a Hindu right-wing intelligentsia group with alleged hyperlinks to the RSS.
In reality, specialists say the Mappila insurrection triggered an Indian surgeon named Keshav Baliram Hedgewar to create the RSS alongside the traces of Germany’s Nazi occasion in 1925.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the chief ideologue of India’s Hindu supremacist motion, even wrote a novel, Moplah, on the rebellion in 1924. He was one of many first ones to name the insurrection “an anti-Hindu genocide”.
Recently, MB Rajesh, the speaker of Kerala’s legislative meeting, referred to as Haji “a warrior”, drawing backlash from the Hindu proper.
“The main character of the rebellion was anti-British and anti-feudal,” Rajesh instructed Al Jazeera, calling it primarily an “agrarian revolt”.
“Nobody can negate the fact they [rebels] were killed by the British. Hindus were also punished for the rebellion.”
Mohammed Niyas Ashraf, who was a member of the analysis and editorial group of the ICHR’s dictionary, says the names have been included based mostly on a regular methodology.
“The first and foremost objective of the dictionary was to recognise the sacrifice of people from the lower rungs of the society,” Niyas instructed Al Jazeera.
He factors out that Mappilas of 1921, like many others, didn’t use nationwide symbols as a result of “no national identity existed”. But he says he’s puzzled by the ICHR’s suggestions.
“Variyamkunnath declared the death penalty to people who attempt forceful conversion,” says I Sameel, a neighborhood journalist who has labored on the Malabar insurrection.
“There are news reports that say he punished people for threatening the non-Muslims.”
Bramadathan Namboothiri, named after his grandfather who was arrested and jailed for being a insurgent, guidelines out any spiritual angle to the insurrection.
Professor MH Ilias, a outstanding scholar on Kerala’s Muslims, instructed Al Jazeera “the historiography of Malabar has been distorted since the beginning”, holding the state and central governments accountable for not rectifying the colonial historical past.
“There is no demographic change (in Kerala) to suggest forced conversion [of Hindus],” parliamentarian Baheer stated, pledging to move “politically and legally” towards the BJP’s move to “saffronise” India’s historical past.
“The union government is making every effort to distance Malabar Muslims’ legacy from the present generation. But such tampered history will not live long.”